编程入门教程

SQLite - C/C++

安装

在 C/C++ 程序中使用 SQLite 之前,我们需要确保机器上已经有 SQLite 库。可以查看 SQLite 安装章节了解安装过程。

C/C++ 接口 API

以下是重要的 C&C++ / SQLite 接口程序,可以满足您在 C/C++ 程序中使用 SQLite 数据库的需求。如果您需要了解更多细节,请查看 SQLite 官方文档。

序号 API & 描述
1 sqlite3_open(const char *filename, sqlite3 **ppDb)

该例程打开一个指向 SQLite 数据库文件的连接,返回一个用于其他 SQLite 程序的数据库连接对象。

如果 filename 参数是 NULL 或 ':memory:',那么 sqlite3_open() 将会在 RAM 中创建一个内存数据库,这只会在 session 的有效时间内持续。

如果文件名 filename 不为 NULL,那么 sqlite3_open() 将使用这个参数值尝试打开数据库文件。如果该名称的文件不存在,sqlite3_open() 将创建一个新的命名为该名称的数据库文件并打开。

2 sqlite3_exec(sqlite3*, const char *sql, sqlite_callback, void *data, char **errmsg)

该例程提供了一个执行 SQL 命令的快捷方式,SQL 命令由 sql 参数提供,可以由多个 SQL 命令组成。

在这里,第一个参数 sqlite3 是打开的数据库对象,sqlite_callback 是一个回调,data 作为其第一个参数,errmsg 将被返回用来获取程序生成的任何错误。

sqlite3_exec() 程序解析并执行由 sql 参数所给的每个命令,直到字符串结束或者遇到错误为止。

3 sqlite3_close(sqlite3*)

该例程关闭之前调用 sqlite3_open() 打开的数据库连接。所有与连接相关的语句都应在连接关闭之前完成。

如果还有查询没有完成,sqlite3_close() 将返回 SQLITE_BUSY 禁止关闭的错误消息。

连接数据库

下面的 C 代码段显示了如何连接到一个现有的数据库。如果数据库不存在,那么它就会被创建,最后将返回一个数据库对象。

#include <stdio.h>
#include <sqlite3.h>

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   sqlite3 *db;
   char *zErrMsg = 0;
   int rc;

   rc = sqlite3_open("test.db", &db);

   if( rc ){
      fprintf(stderr, "Can't open database: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      exit(0);
   }else{
      fprintf(stderr, "Opened database successfully\n");
   }
   sqlite3_close(db);
}

现在,让我们来编译和运行上面的程序,在当前目录中创建我们的数据库 test.db。您可以根据需要改变路径。

$gcc test.c -l sqlite3
$./a.out
Opened database successfully

如果要使用 C++ 源代码,可以按照下列所示编译代码:

$g++ test.c -l sqlite3

在这里,把我们的程序链接上 sqlite3 库,以便向 C 程序提供必要的函数。这将在您的目录下创建一个数据库文件 test.db,您将得到如下结果:

-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 7383 May  8 02:06 a.out
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  323 May  8 02:05 test.c
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 May  8 02:06 test.db

创建表

下面的 C 代码段将用于在先前创建的数据库中创建一个表:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sqlite3.h> 

static int callback(void *NotUsed, int argc, char **argv, char **azColName){
   int i;
   for(i=0; i&lt;argc; i++){
      printf("%s = %s\n", azColName[i], argv[i] ? argv[i] : "NULL");
   }
   printf("\n");
   return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   sqlite3 *db;
   char *zErrMsg = 0;
   int  rc;
   char *sql;

   /* Open database */
   rc = sqlite3_open("test.db", &db);
   if( rc ){
      fprintf(stderr, "Can't open database: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      exit(0);
   }else{
      fprintf(stdout, "Opened database successfully\n");
   }

   /* Create SQL statement */
   sql = "CREATE TABLE COMPANY("  \
         "ID INT PRIMARY KEY     NOT NULL," \
         "NAME           TEXT    NOT NULL," \
         "AGE            INT     NOT NULL," \
         "ADDRESS        CHAR(50)," \
         "SALARY         REAL );";

   /* Execute SQL statement */
   rc = sqlite3_exec(db, sql, callback, 0, &zErrMsg);
   if( rc != SQLITE_OK ){
   fprintf(stderr, "SQL error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
   }else{
      fprintf(stdout, "Table created successfully\n");
   }
   sqlite3_close(db);
   return 0;
}

上述程序编译和执行时,它会在 test.db 文件中创建 COMPANY 表,最终文件列表如下所示:

-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 9567 May  8 02:31 a.out
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1207 May  8 02:31 test.c
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 3072 May  8 02:31 test.db

INSERT 操作

下面的 C 代码段显示了如何在上面创建的 COMPANY 表中创建记录:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sqlite3.h>

static int callback(void *NotUsed, int argc, char **argv, char **azColName){
   int i;
   for(i=0; i&lt;argc; i++){
      printf("%s = %s\n", azColName[i], argv[i] ? argv[i] : "NULL");
   }
   printf("\n");
   return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   sqlite3 *db;
   char *zErrMsg = 0;
   int rc;
   char *sql;

   /* Open database */
   rc = sqlite3_open("test.db", &db);
   if( rc ){
      fprintf(stderr, "Can't open database: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      exit(0);
   }else{
      fprintf(stderr, "Opened database successfully\n");
   }

   /* Create SQL statement */
   sql = "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY) "  \
         "VALUES (1, 'Paul', 32, 'California', 20000.00 ); " \
         "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY) "  \
         "VALUES (2, 'Allen', 25, 'Texas', 15000.00 ); "     \
         "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY)" \
         "VALUES (3, 'Teddy', 23, 'Norway', 20000.00 );" \
         "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY)" \
         "VALUES (4, 'Mark', 25, 'Rich-Mond ', 65000.00 );";

   /* Execute SQL statement */
   rc = sqlite3_exec(db, sql, callback, 0, &zErrMsg);
   if( rc != SQLITE_OK ){
      fprintf(stderr, "SQL error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
   }else{
      fprintf(stdout, "Records created successfully\n");
   }
   sqlite3_close(db);
   return 0;
}

上述程序编译和执行时,它会在 COMPANY 表中创建给定记录,并会显示以下两行:

Opened database successfully
Records created successfully

SELECT 操作

在我们开始讲解获取记录的实例之前,让我们先了解下回调函数的一些细节,这将在我们的实例使用到。这个回调提供了一个从 SELECT 语句获得结果的方式。它声明如下:

typedef int (*sqlite3_callback)(
void*,    /* Data provided in the 4th argument of sqlite3_exec() */
int,      /* The number of columns in row */
char**,   /* An array of strings representing fields in the row */
char**    /* An array of strings representing column names */
);

如果上面的回调在 sqlite_exec() 程序中作为第三个参数,那么 SQLite 将为 SQL 参数内执行的每个 SELECT 语句中处理的每个记录调用这个回调函数。

下面的 C 代码段显示了如何从前面创建的 COMPANY 表中获取并显示记录:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sqlite3.h>

static int callback(void *data, int argc, char **argv, char **azColName){
   int i;
   fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", (const char*)data);
   for(i=0; i&lt;argc; i++){
      printf("%s = %s\n", azColName[i], argv[i] ? argv[i] : "NULL");
   }
   printf("\n");
   return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   sqlite3 *db;
   char *zErrMsg = 0;
   int rc;
   char *sql;
   const char* data = "Callback function called";

   /* Open database */
   rc = sqlite3_open("test.db", &db);
   if( rc ){
      fprintf(stderr, "Can't open database: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      exit(0);
   }else{
      fprintf(stderr, "Opened database successfully\n");
   }

   /* Create SQL statement */
   sql = "SELECT * from COMPANY";

   /* Execute SQL statement */
   rc = sqlite3_exec(db, sql, callback, (void*)data, &zErrMsg);
   if( rc != SQLITE_OK ){
      fprintf(stderr, "SQL error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
   }else{
      fprintf(stdout, "Operation done successfully\n");
   }
   sqlite3_close(db);
   return 0;
}

上述程序编译和执行时,它会产生以下结果:

Opened database successfully
Callback function called: ID = 1
NAME = Paul
AGE = 32
ADDRESS = California
SALARY = 20000.0

Callback function called: ID = 2
NAME = Allen
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Texas
SALARY = 15000.0

Callback function called: ID = 3
NAME = Teddy
AGE = 23
ADDRESS = Norway
SALARY = 20000.0

Callback function called: ID = 4
NAME = Mark
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Rich-Mond
SALARY = 65000.0

Operation done successfully

UPDATE 操作

下面的 C 代码段显示了如何使用 UPDATE 语句来更新任何记录,然后从 COMPANY 表中获取并显示更新的记录:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sqlite3.h> 

static int callback(void *data, int argc, char **argv, char **azColName){
   int i;
   fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", (const char*)data);
   for(i=0; i&lt;argc; i++){
      printf("%s = %s\n", azColName[i], argv[i] ? argv[i] : "NULL");
   }
   printf("\n");
   return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   sqlite3 *db;
   char *zErrMsg = 0;
   int rc;
   char *sql;
   const char* data = "Callback function called";

   /* Open database */
   rc = sqlite3_open("test.db", &db);
   if( rc ){
      fprintf(stderr, "Can't open database: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      exit(0);
   }else{
      fprintf(stderr, "Opened database successfully\n");
   }

   /* Create merged SQL statement */
   sql = "UPDATE COMPANY set SALARY = 25000.00 where ID=1; " \
         "SELECT * from COMPANY";

   /* Execute SQL statement */
   rc = sqlite3_exec(db, sql, callback, (void*)data, &zErrMsg);
   if( rc != SQLITE_OK ){
      fprintf(stderr, "SQL error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
   }else{
      fprintf(stdout, "Operation done successfully\n");
   }
   sqlite3_close(db);
   return 0;
}

上述程序编译和执行时,它会产生以下结果:

Opened database successfully
Callback function called: ID = 1
NAME = Paul
AGE = 32
ADDRESS = California
SALARY = 25000.0

Callback function called: ID = 2
NAME = Allen
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Texas
SALARY = 15000.0

Callback function called: ID = 3
NAME = Teddy
AGE = 23
ADDRESS = Norway
SALARY = 20000.0

Callback function called: ID = 4
NAME = Mark
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Rich-Mond
SALARY = 65000.0

Operation done successfully

DELETE 操作

下面的 C 代码段显示了如何使用 DELETE 语句删除任何记录,然后从 COMPANY 表中获取并显示剩余的记录:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sqlite3.h> 

static int callback(void *data, int argc, char **argv, char **azColName){
   int i;
   fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", (const char*)data);
   for(i=0; i<argc; i++){
      printf("%s = %s\n", azColName[i], argv[i] ? argv[i] : "NULL");
   }
   printf("\n");
   return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   sqlite3 *db;
   char *zErrMsg = 0;
   int rc;
   char *sql;
   const char* data = "Callback function called";

   /* Open database */
   rc = sqlite3_open("test.db", &db);
   if( rc ){
      fprintf(stderr, "Can't open database: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      exit(0);
   }else{
      fprintf(stderr, "Opened database successfully\n");
   }

   /* Create merged SQL statement */
   sql = "DELETE from COMPANY where ID=2; " \
         "SELECT * from COMPANY";

   /* Execute SQL statement */
   rc = sqlite3_exec(db, sql, callback, (void*)data, &zErrMsg);
   if( rc != SQLITE_OK ){
      fprintf(stderr, "SQL error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
   }else{
      fprintf(stdout, "Operation done successfully\n");
   }
   sqlite3_close(db);
   return 0;
}

上述程序编译和执行时,它会产生以下结果:

Opened database successfully
Callback function called: ID = 1
NAME = Paul
AGE = 32
ADDRESS = California
SALARY = 20000.0

Callback function called: ID = 3
NAME = Teddy
AGE = 23
ADDRESS = Norway
SALARY = 20000.0

Callback function called: ID = 4
NAME = Mark
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Rich-Mond
SALARY = 65000.0

Operation done successfully