编程入门教程

SQLite Unions 子句

SQLite的 UNION 子句/运算符用于合并两个或多个 SELECT 语句的结果,不返回任何重复的行。

为了使用 UNION,每个 SELECT 被选择的列数必须是相同的,相同数目的列表达式,相同的数据类型,并确保它们有相同的顺序,但它们不必具有相同的长度。

语法

UNION 的基本语法如下:

SELECT column1 [, column2 ]
FROM table1 [, table2 ]
[WHERE condition]

UNION

SELECT column1 [, column2 ]
FROM table1 [, table2 ]
[WHERE condition]

这里给定的条件根据需要可以是任何表达式。

实例

假设有下面两个表,(1)COMPANY 表如下所示:

sqlite> select * from COMPANY;
ID          NAME                  AGE         ADDRESS     SALARY
----------  --------------------  ----------  ----------  ----------
1           Paul                  32          California  20000.0
2           Allen                 25          Texas       15000.0
3           Teddy                 23          Norway      20000.0
4           Mark                  25          Rich-Mond   65000.0
5           David                 27          Texas       85000.0
6           Kim                   22          South-Hall  45000.0
7           James                 24          Houston     10000.0

(2)另一个表是 DEPARTMENT,如下所示:

ID          DEPT                  EMP_ID
----------  --------------------  ----------
1           IT Billing            1
2           Engineering           2
3           Finance               7
4           Engineering           3
5           Finance               4
6           Engineering           5
7           Finance               6

现在,让我们使用 SELECT 语句及 UNION 子句来连接两个表,如下所示:

sqlite> SELECT EMP_ID, NAME, DEPT FROM COMPANY INNER JOIN DEPARTMENT
        ON COMPANY.ID = DEPARTMENT.EMP_ID
   UNION
     SELECT EMP_ID, NAME, DEPT FROM COMPANY LEFT OUTER JOIN DEPARTMENT
        ON COMPANY.ID = DEPARTMENT.EMP_ID;

这将产生以下结果:

EMP_ID      NAME                  DEPT
----------  --------------------  ----------
1           Paul                  IT Billing
2           Allen                 Engineerin
3           Teddy                 Engineerin
4           Mark                  Finance
5           David                 Engineerin
6           Kim                   Finance
7           James                 Finance

UNION ALL 子句

UNION ALL 运算符用于结合两个 SELECT 语句的结果,包括重复行。

适用于 UNION 的规则同样适用于 UNION ALL 运算符。

语法

UNION ALL 的基本语法如下:

SELECT column1 [, column2 ]
FROM table1 [, table2 ]
[WHERE condition]

UNION ALL

SELECT column1 [, column2 ]
FROM table1 [, table2 ]
[WHERE condition]

这里给定的条件根据需要可以是任何表达式。

实例

现在,让我们使用 SELECT 语句及 UNION ALL 子句来连接两个表,如下所示:

sqlite> SELECT EMP_ID, NAME, DEPT FROM COMPANY INNER JOIN DEPARTMENT
        ON COMPANY.ID = DEPARTMENT.EMP_ID
   UNION ALL
     SELECT EMP_ID, NAME, DEPT FROM COMPANY LEFT OUTER JOIN DEPARTMENT
        ON COMPANY.ID = DEPARTMENT.EMP_ID;

这将产生以下结果:

EMP_ID      NAME                  DEPT
----------  --------------------  ----------
1           Paul                  IT Billing
2           Allen                 Engineerin
3           Teddy                 Engineerin
4           Mark                  Finance
5           David                 Engineerin
6           Kim                   Finance
7           James                 Finance
1           Paul                  IT Billing
2           Allen                 Engineerin
3           Teddy                 Engineerin
4           Mark                  Finance
5           David                 Engineerin
6           Kim                   Finance
7           James                 Finance